In 1861, during the Civil War, the first Battle of Bull Run was fought at Manassas, Va.; the Confederates won.
In 1925, the “Monkey Trial” ended in Dayton, Tenn., with John T. Scopes found guilty of violating state law for teaching Darwin’s theory of evolution; the conviction was later overturned on a technicality.
In 1944, American forces landed on Guam during World War II, capturing the island from the Japanese some three weeks later. The Democratic National Convention in Chicago nominated U.S. Sen. Harry S. Truman to be vice president.
In 1955, during a summit in Geneva, President Dwight D. Eisenhower presented his “open skies” proposal under which the United States and the Soviet Union would trade information about each other’s military facilities and allow aerial reconnaissance; the Soviets rejected the proposal.
In 1969, Apollo 11 astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin blasted off from the moon aboard the ascent stage of the lunar module for docking with the command module piloted by astronaut Michael Collins.
In 1980, draft registration began in the U.S. for 19- and 20-year-old men.
In 1990, a benefit concert took place in Germany at the site of the fallen Berlin Wall; the concert, which drew some 200,000 people, was headlined by Roger Waters, a founder of Pink Floyd; the concert ended with the collapse of a mock Berlin Wall made of styrofoam.
In 1994, Britain’s Labor Party elected Tony Blair its new leader, succeeding the late John Smith.
In 1999, Navy divers found and recovered the bodies of John F. Kennedy Jr., his wife, Carolyn, and sister-in-law, Lauren Bessette, in the wreckage of Kennedy’s plane in the Atlantic Ocean off Martha’s Vineyard, Mass.