In response to Sam Howe’s letter (Dec. 31): Yes, voter ID certainly can be racially biased. It primarily disenfranchises the poor and those who have fewer resources. And in this state, for now, the majority of these folks are minorities. Recent research using Cooperative Congressional Election Studies data from the 2008 and 2012 elections showed that strict ID laws doubled the turnout gap between whites and Latinos in the general elections, and almost doubled the white-black turnout gap in primary elections.

From this one study it is evident that strict photo identification laws have a negative impact on the turnout of Hispanics, African Americans and mixed-race Americans in primaries and general elections. This is racial discrimination.

Lyn McCoy

Greensboro

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