In 1892, an early version of “The Pledge of Allegiance,” written by Francis Bellamy, appeared in “The Youth’s Companion.” It went: “I pledge allegiance to my Flag and the Republic for which it stands, one nation, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.”

In 1900, Galveston, Texas, was struck by a hurricane that killed an estimated 8,000 people.

In 1935, Sen. Huey P. Long, a Louisiana Democrat, was shot and mortally wounded inside the Louisiana State Capitol; he died two days later. (The assailant was identified as Dr. Carl Weiss, who was gunned down by Long’s bodyguards.)

In 1941, the 900-day Siege of Leningrad by German forces began.

In 1943, during World War II, Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower announced Italy’s surrender; Nazi Germany denounced Italy’s decision as a cowardly act.

In 1964, public schools in Prince Edward County, Virginia, reopened after being closed for five years by officials attempting to prevent court-ordered racial desegregation.

In 1974, President Gerald R. Ford granted a “full, free, and absolute pardon” to former President Richard Nixon covering his entire term in office.

In 1985, Pete Rose of the Cincinnati Reds tied Ty Cobb’s career record for hits, singling for hit number 4,191 during a game against the Cubs in Chicago.

In 1986, “The Oprah Winfrey Show” began the first of 25 seasons in national syndication.

In 1994, USAir Flight 427, a Boeing 737, crashed into a ravine as it was approaching Pittsburgh International Airport, killing all 132 people on board.

In 2009, in a nationally broadcast pep talk from Wakefield High School in Arlington, Virginia, President Barack Obama challenged the nation’s students to take pride in their education. Justice Sonia Sotomayor ceremonially took her seat at the Supreme Court in front of a packed courtroom that included President Obama and Vice President Joe Biden. A U.N.-backed commission said it had found “convincing evidence” of fraud in Afghanistan’s presidential election. Veteran Hollywood columnist Army Archerd, 87, died in Los Angeles.

In 2014, the European Union shied away from slapping new economic sanctions on Russia right away over its actions in eastern Ukraine, saying the punitive measures would come into force “in the next few days” depending on how well a cease-fire agreement in eastern Ukraine held. Croatia’s Marin Cilic won his first Grand Slam title by beating Japan’s Kei Nishikori 6-3, 6-3, 6-3 at the U.S. Open. Ray Rice was let go by the Baltimore Ravens and suspended indefinitely by the NFL after a video was released showing the running back striking his then-fiancee, Janay Palmer, in an elevator in February 2014. S. Truett Cathy, the billionaire founder of the Chick-fil-A restaurant chain, died in suburban Atlanta at age 93.

In 2017, Hurricane Irma regained Category 5 status, battering Cuba with 160-mph winds and taking aim on the Miami area; the death toll across the Caribbean climbed past 20. In one of the country’s largest evacuations, officials in Florida told more than 5 million people to leave their homes ahead of the hurricane; parts of interstates 75 and 95 northbound were bumper-to-bumper. Singer Troy Gentry, half of the country music duo Montgomery Gentry, died in a helicopter crash in Medford, New Jersey; pilot James Robinson was also killed.

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